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Dr. Vikram Chauhan - MD (Ayurveda)

Monday, August 28, 2023

What Is The Concept of Ama (Metabolic Toxin) in Ayurveda


In Ayurveda, ama is the outcome of improper digestion. It is a very vital concept in the ayurvedic field. It is the cause of many diseases. It plays a vital role in the manifestation of many pathological conditions. Ama is a harmful metabolic toxin which obstructs the multiple channels in the body like blood vessels, genito-urinary tract, lymphatic system, gastrointestinal tract and others too. Incomplete or partial digestion of food leads to ama. So today we will read about the concept of ama in brief in this article.

Ama, Concept Of Toxin, Metabolic Toxin, Ama In Ayurveda, Herbal Remedies, Symptoms, Treatment, Ayurveda, Ayurvedic Treatment, Diagnosis


इषत अम्यते पच्यते इति आम:।

According to the above shloka:- Incomplete or partial digestion of food leads to ama.

अम्यते पीडयते स्रोतोसमूहो अनेन इति आम:।

According to the above shloka:- Product which brings discomfort in srotas is ama.

Ama is a word that represents the impaired digestion and metabolism due to hypo-functioning of jatharagni (digestive fire). Wherever ama goes it gives rise to pain and initiates reactions among doshas, dushayas, srotas etc. present in that particular area and it can be understood by the presence of symptoms due to ama. Due to impaired agni food does not digest properly and develop the unprocessed rasa. It leads to an advanced condition known as amavisa.

The result of ama inside the body is called ama dosha. Manifestation of certain reactions inside the body due to underprocessed anna rasa is called ama pradosha. When ama comes in contact with dosha leading to vitiation of sarira by manifesting various kinds of diseases.

Causes Of Developing Ama

  • Consumption of food substances in excess, along with not following the rules and regulation of dietetics described under astavidha ahara visesayatana (eight factors pertaining to food intake) leads to formation of ama.
  • Intake of food having following qualities:-
    • Heavy
    • Unctuous
    • Cold
    • Dry
    • Despicable
    • Constipation
    • Irritant
    • Unclean
  • Intake of food in improper time
  • Intake of food if person afflicted with following mental morbidity
    • Excessive passion for sexual pleasure
    • Anger
    • Greed
    • Confusion
    • Bashfulness
    • Grief
    • Indigestion
    • Anxiety and fear

Biophysical Properties Of Ama

  • Liquid
  • Heavy
  • Attain different colors
  • Etiological factor for almost all diseases
  • Slimy
  • Viscid
  • Thread-like
  • Sticky nature
  • Various kinds of pain
  • Yields foul smell

Other qualities like increased sourness, excess in quantity, thick, increased turbidity, obstruct various pathways etc.

Prodromal Features Of Ama

  • Stiffness
  • Anorexia
  • Excessive sleep
  • Excessive pallor
  • Dullness
  • Continuous aversion from play, food, sleep

General Symptoms Of Ama

  • Obstruction in channels
  • Diminution of strength
  • Heaviness
  • Disturbance in the normal movements of vata dosha
  • Drowsiness
  • Indigestion
  • Fatigue
  • Sticky thick tongue
  • Lethargy
  • Pain
  • Excessive spitting of saliva
  • Obstruction for urine and stool
  • Loss of appetite
  • Depression
  • Lack of desire towards food
  • Exhaustion


Sama manifests due to amalgamation of dosha and dushya resulting in formation of various kinds of disorders. It causes obstruction in channels, decreased body strength, heaviness, disturbances in normal movement of vata, laziness, indigestion, constipation, excessive exhaustion. In later stages, it gives rise to the origin of certain diseases.

Sama Vata Lakshana

The following are the characteristics signs and symptoms of sama vata:-

  • Obstruction for mala (waste products) and urine (mutra)
  • Diminished functions of Agni
  • Stiffness
  • Increased bowel sounds
  • Pain all over the body
  • Swelling
  • Piercing/pricking/stinging types of pain
  • Gradually manifest malaise all over the body
  • The agitated vayu (air) circulates all over the body and produces diseases when a favorable situation arises.
  • Anointing body both externally and internally, sunrise, cloudy season and night, aggravates ama condition.

Sama Pitta Lakshana

The following are the characteristics signs and symptoms of sama pitta:-

  • Foul smell
  • Greenish discoloration
  • Light blackish
  • Sour taste
  • Doesn’t spread in water (thick)
  • Heavy
  • Sour eructation
  • Burning sensation in throat
  • Burning sensation in cardiac region

Sama Kapha Lakshana

The following are the characteristics signs and symptoms of sama kapha:-

  • Increased turbidity in stool, urine and other waste substances of the body
  • Thread-like
  • Thick, stagnates in the throat
  • Foul smell
  • Complete lack of appetite
  • Complete obstruction for eructation

Sama Rasadhatu Lakshana

The following are the characteristics signs and symptoms of sama rasadhatu:-

  • Lack of interest or desire toward food
  • Anorexia
  • Feeling loss of taste in mouth
  • Lack of taste sensing capacity
  • Nausea
  • Heaviness
  • Drowsiness, fatigue
  • Malaise, body-ache
  • Fever
  • Darkness in front of eyes
  • Anemia
  • Obstruction of body channels
  • Impotency 
  • Heaviness of body
  • Emaciation
  • Loss of digestion strength
  • Premature wrinkling of skin and graying of hairs

Sama Raktadhatu Lakshana

The following are the characteristics signs and symptoms of sama raktadhatu:-

  • Skin diseases
  • Acute spreading diseases of the skin
  • Carbuncle
  • Bleeding diseases
  • Menorrhagia
  • Inflammation and suppuration in rectum and penis
  • Mouth ulcers
  • Disease of the spleen
  • Tumors in abdomen
  • Abscess
  • Blue moles
  • Jaundice
  • Blackish discoloration on face
  • Port wine mark
  • Black mole
  • Ringworm, dermatitis, leucoderma, papules, urticaria, red circular patches
  • Alopecia
  • Gout

Sama Mamsadhatu Lakshana

The following are the characteristics signs and symptoms of sama mamsadhatu:-

  • Hypertrophy of the muscles
  • Myoma
  • Piles
  • Uvulitis
  • Tonsillitis
  • Sloughing of flesh
  • Boils
  • Goiter
  • Cervical adenitis
  • Inflammation of epiglottis
  • Hypertrophy of the tongue
  • Gum boil
  • Inflammation of lips

Sama Medadhatu Lakshana

The following are the characteristics signs and symptoms of sama medadhatu:-

  • Astanindit prusha that is too tall, too short, over hairy, hairless, too black, over fair, over obese, over emaciation are the symptoms of sama meda.
  • Premonitory signs and symptoms of prameha (diabetes)
  • Benign and malignant tumors, internal growths
  • Enlargement of scrotum
  • Goiter
  • Tumor/cancer
  • Accumulation of meda (fat) in lips
  • Diabetes mellitus
  • Obesity
  • Excessive perspiration

Sama Asthidhatu Lakshana

The following are the characteristics signs and symptoms of sama asthidhatu:-

  • Hypertrophy of the bones
  • Excess teeth
  • Crackling sensation and pain in teeth
  • Crackling sensation and pain in bone
  • Discoloration of hair
  • Deformity of hair of head, body hairs, nail and beard
  • Diseases in nails

Sama Majjadhatu Lakshana

The following are the characteristics signs and symptoms of sama majjadhatu:-

  • Pain in small joints
  • Giddiness
  • Fainting
  • Seeing darkness in front of eyes
  • Manifestation of deep-seated abscesses in joints
  • Inflammation in eyes

Sama Sukradhatu Lakshana

The following are the characteristics signs and symptoms of sama sukradhatu:-

  • Non erection of penis
  • Incapability to indulge in sex in spite of erection too
  • Diseased progeny having short lifespan or deformed/disfigured
  • No conception or if conception there will be abortion or miscarriage
  • Manifests infertility and brings misery to his entire family

Sama Mutra Lakshana

The following characteristic properties indicate sama condition of mutra are as follows:-

  • Excessive urination
  • Urine attain different colors
  • Slimy urine
  • Viscid urine
  • Thread like urine
  • Strained urination
  • Various kinds of pain while passing urine
  • Foul smell urine
  • Increased frequency of urine
  • Increased turbidity

Sama Purisha Lakshana

The following characteristics properties indicate sama condition of purisha are as follows:-

  • Excessive stool evacuation
  • Stool attain different colors
  • Slimy stool
  • Viscid stool
  • Thread like stool
  • Constipation
  • Various kinds of pain while passing stool
  • Foul smell stool
  • Increased frequency of stool
  • Watery stool
  • Various kinds of sounds while passing stool
  • Frothy stool
  • When it combines with doshas, dhatus and other malas manifests diseases accordingly
  • Sinks in water

Sama Sweda Lakshana

The following characteristics properties indicate sama condition of sama sweda are as follows:-

  • Excessive sweat formation
  • Sweat attain different colors
  • Slimy sweat
  • Obstruction for sweat
  • Foul smell sweat
  • Increased frequency of sweat
  • Itching
  • Burning sensation in skin
  • Roughness of skin


Nirama term is used when there is absence of undigested food particles (devoid of ama).

Nirama Vata Lakshana

निरामो विषदो रुक्षो निर्विबंधोअल्प वेदन:।
विपरीत गुणे: शान्तिं स्निग्धैयार्ति विशेषत:।

Reference - A.H.Su.13/27-28

The following are the characteristics signs and symptoms of nirama vata:-

  • Clear/transparent
  • Unctuous
  • Free from obstruction to normal movements of vata
  • Mild pain
  • Subsides by vata alleviating therapies like oleation

Nirama Pitta Lakshana

The following are the characteristics signs and symptoms of nirama pitta:-

  • Slight coppery
  • Yellowish color
  • Markedly increased warmthness
  • Pungent taste
  • Which spreads and mixes with water easily
  • Doesn’t yield bad smell
  • Enhances taste
  • Enhances the strength of bio digestive fire

Nirama Kapha Lakshana

The following are the characteristics signs and symptoms of nirama kapha:-

  • Frothy
  • Free from threads
  • Pallor
  • Clear light substance
  • Free from foul smell
  • Which is properly digested
  • Cleanses oral cavity

Nirama General Symptoms

  • No obstruction in channels
  • Regaining strength
  • Lightness
  • Vata (air) moves freely in its own path
  • Active
  • Proper digestion
  • No excessive secretions from oral cavity
  • No obstruction for urine, stool, flatus
  • Desire to take food
  • Free from exhaustion


If a person consumes incompatible foods, eats before the digestion of previous meals, during the state of indigestion, whatever is taken by the individual at this stage gets transformed to sourness. Leading to development of following sentence:-

  • Ama liberates certain poisons in amashaya (stomach) leading to manifestation of symptoms of food poisoning.
  • Incurable
  • Onset become insidious
  • Treatment becomes antagonist because if hot substances are employed for the management of ama condition, then ama visa exacerbates, if cold substances are given, which enhances ama condition. Due to contradiction in the lines of treatment of both the conditions, prognosis becomes difficult or incurable.

Treatment Of Ama

Desaturation is of three types:- reducing (langhan), reducing cum digesting (langhan pachnam), letting out of doshas (doshab avsechan). Amongst them, reducing therapy is recommended for those having doshas with a little strength. By reducing therapy agni and vata are increased which dry up the little dosha like the wind and the sun drying up the little water. The reducing cum digesting therapy is prescribed in case of doshas with medium strength. By this therapy, the moderate doshas are dried up in the same way as the moderate quantity of water is dried up by the sun-heat and wind and also by sprinkling dust and ashes. In the case of abundant doshas, only letting out doshas is prescribed, there is no remedy for overflowing a small pool except by breaking down field barriers. The therapy of letting out doshas works in the same way. Dry sudation is also very effective in ama. It is a therapy that reduces the obstruction in the channels and reduces pain and inflammation. There are various herbs which are effective in aam like guduchi, cumin, turmeric, garlic, ginger, aloe vera, black pepper, bhallataka, etc.


In this article we read about the concept of ama that is incomplete or partial digestion of food. The main factor for the formation of ama is deranged functions of agnis. Ama develops inside the amashaya (stomach). If it remains for a longer duration in the stomach in due course of time it attains suktatva, which is termed as ama pradosa or ama visa. Ama, ama dosha and amavisa play an important role in the pathogenesis as well as prognosis of diseases. Abnormal increase in the normal values of blood, urine, stool, semen, sputum, cerebrospinal fluid, salivary juice, etc may be understood as a condition. We can manage this disease in ayurveda by langhan (fasting), langhan pachana (reducing cum digesting) and doshas avsechan (letting out of doshas). In case of any query kindly visit

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