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Dr. Vikram Chauhan - MD (Ayurveda)

Friday, May 24, 2024

Kalmegh / Creat / Andrographis paniculata - Classification, Ayurvedic Properties and Dosage

Abstract

Since the beginning of time, healing plants have served as a source of regional medication. Throughout the world, people frequently employ Andrographis paniculata, a potential therapeutic plant. The most common uses for this plant include the treatment of vital chilly, free entrails, fever from a few viral sources, jaundice, and as a liver and cardiovascular health tonic. Cytotoxic, anti-protozoan, reliving, antioxidant, immunostimulant, anti-diabetic, anti-infective, and anti-angiogenic effects of the plant's concentrate and pure mixtures have all been examined. Its effects on insecticidal and toxic actions have an impact on hepatic chemical management, hepato-renal defense, and the balance of sexual hormones. Using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), the diterpene lactone molecule andrographolide that was found in the methanolic portion of the plant A. paniculata was cleaned up. This study presents the current research on A. paniculata in terms of restorative use, phytochemistry, pharmacological activity, harmfulness profile, and beneficial usage in order to overcome any challenges that may necessitate future discovery prospects.

Introduction

About two-thirds of the general population in several non-modern nations is thought to passionately rely on conventional specialist doctors and restorative plants to meet their specific clinical problem demands. Due to a number of issues with conventional medications, researchers are actively exploring a number of species that are focused on different plant species and their potential as potential drugs. To revive the current state of records, a complete composition of each species is required. Andrographis paniculata has been utilized for many years in Ayurvedic and Oriental medicine. The A. genus, which is part of the Acanthaceae family, has about 40 species. A selected few are well-known for being used in human medicine to treat a range of illnesses. The fragrant annual A. paniculata, sometimes called Kalmegh or King of Bitters.

Kalmegh, Creat, Andrographis paniculata, Classification, Ayurvedic Properties, Dosage, Morphology, Application Of Kalmegh, Benefits Of Kalmegh

Geographical Classification

Similar to peninsular India and Sri Lanka, this species is found in Southeast Asia, China, America, the West Indies, and Christmas Island. It is widely utilized because it fills effectively in a variety of soil types and has a strong restorative ability. The plant's airborne components and underground facilities have long been utilized as standard medication to treat a variety of illnesses in China, India, Thailand, and other Southeast Asian countries.

Taxonomical Classification

  1. Kingdom - Plantae
  2. Sub-kingdom - Tracheophytes
  3. Division - Angiosperms
  4. Super Division - Spermatophyta
  5. Class - Dicotyledons
  6. Subclass - Gamopetalae
  7. Series - Bicarpellatae
  8. Order - Lamiales
  9. Family - Acanthaceae
  10. Sub-family - Acanthoideae
  11. Tribe - Justiciae
  12. Subtribe - Andrographideae
  13. Genus - Andrographis
  14. Species - paniculata

Synonyms Of Andrographis Paniculata

  • Bhunimba
  • Yavakharaphala
  • Yavatikta: Seeds are very bitter that's why the name is this.

Vernacular Or Regional Names

  • Sanskrit : Bhunimba, Kirata
  • English : King of Bitters or The Creat
  • Hindi : Charayetah, Kiryat, Mahatika
  • Gujarati : Kariyatu, Kiryata, Olikiriyat
  • Kannada : NelaBevu
  • Malayalam : Kiriyattu, Nala veppu
  • Tamil : Nelavembu, Shiratkuchi
  • Telugu : Nilavembu

Rasapanchaka Of The Plant

  • RASA (taste) - Katu (pungent)
  • GUNA (virtue) - Laghu (light), Tikshna (sharp)
  • VIRYA (potency) - Ushna (hot potency)
  • VIPAKA (post digestion) - Katu (pungent)
  • KARMA (action) - Kapha pitta shamak

Morphology

Erect, feeble, glabrous shrubs or herbs that are 30 to 90 cm tall and have quadrangular stems Oval-lanceolate, acute, sessile or subsessible, 7.5*1.25-2 cm, narrow at both ends, leaves Flowers in axillary and terminal racemes and panicles are distant and rose-colored. The absence of bracteoles and lance-shaped bracts. linear-languid, glandular-pubescent sepals. Corolla with outer hairs; tube with minor enlargement below limb; upper lip with two teeth at apex; lower lop with three lobed grooves. Flattened filaments with hairy upper portions and bearded bases on the anthers Oblong, linear capsules with tapered ends Subquadrate, pitted-rugose seeds.

Habit

annual, erect, wild subshrub

Branchlets on the 4-gonous, branching, herbaceous, cylindrical, firm, green stem

Simple, opposite, decussate, linear-obovate, ex-stipulate, delicate, subsessile leaves with an acute apex and unicostate reticulate venation.

Panicle inflorescence with zigzag-shaped panicle branches

Complete, zygomorphic, bisexual flowers with five petals and two stamens that are exerted. The lower middle lobes are crested with purple lines and have a pink tint. The gynoecium is bicarpellary syncarpous with an axile placenta and a superior ovary.

Fruit: Capsules with a hook-like projection on the funicle of the seeds that are essentially beaked, compressed, oblong, and minutely hairy.

Chemical Constituents

The plant contains two crystalline alkaloids, including

  • Kalmeghin
  • Lactone
  • Andrographolide
  • Andrographide
  • Tannin, and
  • Volatile oil in small quantities

Habitat

It inhabits a range of environments, including plains, hillsides, beaches, and disturbed and cultivated regions like farms and roadside riparian zones. South India and Sri Lanka are home to native populations of A. paniculata, which may serve as the species' nexus of origin and diversity.

Cultivation

The plant thrives best in a sunny area. May and June are the months in which the seeds are planted. The seedlings are 60 cm (24 in) away from one another and 30 cm (12 in) apart.

Identification Of The Plant

In damp, shaded settings, the plant develops into an upright herb that can grow as high as 30-110 cm (12-43 in). The thin stem has a square cross section and angles when wings are present. It has a dark green hue. The blades of the lance-shaped leaves are hairless.

Relation With The Doshas

Beyond immune support, Kalmegh has other advantages. A regular body temperature is maintained by the herb's ability to lower pitta and kapha in the head and chest, as well as to cut through thick phlegm brought on by an increase in kapha. Additionally, it supports the health of the sinuses, throat, and respiratory system. You can use doses even topically to quiet an overactive pitta. Pitta imbalances brought on by high levels of pitta in the blood and stagnant pitta in the liver (ranjaka pitta) are balanced by the bitter and cooling characteristics of kalmegh, which enhance liver function and encourage bile formation. In addition to activating agni, boosting hunger, promoting a healthy digestive tract and also helps in the treatment of digestive disease, kalmegh can burn and expel ama.

Kalmegh Recommended Dose

  1. 1-2 teaspoons of kalmegh juice, or as needed
  2. 1–2 teaspoons of kalmegh paste, or as needed
  3. 1 to 2 teaspoons of kalmegh powder, or as needed
  4. Decoction of kalmegh- 20 to 40 ml

Application Of Kalmegh

  • One is Kalmegh Juice - 2 teaspoons of Kalmegh juice should be taken. Combine it with 1 glass of water and consume it once daily, ideally prior to a meal.
  • Kalmegh Capsule - Take one or two Kalmegh capsules, Take it with water after your two daily meals.
  • Kalmegh Leaves - Take five to ten Kalmegh leaves, Use 3–4 black peppercorns to crush it, Use it to treat dysmenorrhea by taking it once a day for seven days.
  • Kalmegh Kwath - Scoop out half to one teaspoon of Kalmegh powder, Include 2 cups of water and boil until only 1/2 cup remains. It's Kamlegh Kwath here, Using this Kalmegh Kwath, take 3–4 ml.
  • The powder Kalmegh Churna - Take 1/4–1/2 teaspoon of the Kalmegh powder, Blend in 1–2 teaspoons of honey, Consume it once or twice daily after eating.

Home Remedies

  • Malaria: Kalamegha leaf juice and maricha (piper nigrum) powder are given internally to those who suffer from the disease.
  • Inflammation: Kalamegha leaves have anti-inflammatory properties and are used to treat inflammation. The leaves can be squeezed to produce extracts that can be administered internally to reduce mild inflammatory changes brought on by sports injuries. 50 to 100 leaves are needed to create the juice in order to achieve the best results.
  • The leaves are mixed with haridra (curcuma longa) and administered topically when there is a skin allergy.
  • A decoction made from the gathered leaves and stem bark is used to treat fever. Put two fistfuls of leaves in 200 ml of water to make a decoction. Use 100 cc twice daily, one hour before eating, for three days to see results quickly.
  • Patients with diabetes mellitus are given 60-100 ml of a kwatha (decoction) produced from the entire plant when they have madhumeha.
  • Liver Disorders: In the event of any form of liver disease, kalamegha leaf decoction is taken orally. 25 leaves can be used to produce a decoction in 100 ml of water. 50 ml of a decoction, given twice a day, an hour before food, for six weeks, may be used to treat liver problems.

Benefits Of Kalmegh

  • Kalamegha, a bitter, febrifuge, stomachic, anthelmintic, bitter tonic, and antihistamine medicine, It is used to treat skin ailments, ascites, heart abnormalities, and allergy illnesses.
  • As a cholagogue and stimulator of liver activities, kalamegha primarily affects the liver. It is a blood purifier that is administered for illnesses brought on by blood impurities. Malaria and chronic fever are treated with a mixture of maricha churna and kalmegh plant powder. The medication is administered when ill, after a fever has subsided.
  • In medicine, kalamegha liquid extract is employed. Due to its bitterness, kalamegha is used in place of kiratatikta as well as being a kiratatikta adulterant.

Pharmacological Potential Of The Plant

1. Hepatoprotector

The traditional Indian medical system makes considerable use of the hepatoprotective and stimulatory properties of Andrographis paniculata (Kalmegh). This plant's leaves provide an aqueous extract that has long been used to treat jaundice and a variety of liver conditions. About 26 distinct treatments, including Andrographis paniculata, are utilized in conventional Ayurveda therapy to treat liver diseases. The major ingredient in Andrographis paniculata, andrographolide, was discovered to be successful in reducing liver damage brought on by carbon tetrachloride. Additionally, andrographolide exhibits notable hepatoprotective activity against various forms of liver damage brought on by paracetamol or galactosamine, and it is more effective than the traditional antioxidant silymarin at preventing a drop in bile production brought on by paracetamol.

2. Immunological Potency

Recent studies suggested that Andrographis paniculata extract could potentially interfere with the human immunodeficiency virus's (HIV) ability to reproduce and suggested that Andrographis paniculata could be combined with current AIDS medications. The vital component of Andrographis paniculata, andrographolide, has the ability to disrupt or alter the virus's cellular signal transduction pathway, obstructing critical enzymes and viral multiplication. Two theories put Andrographis paniculata as an effective immune system activator. A nonspecific immune response, in which invaders were scavenged and killed by macrophage cells, followed the antigen-specific response, in which antibodies were produced to combat invading bacteria. Andrographis paniculata may be beneficial for a number of conditions because it triggers both reactions.

3. Anticancer Property

Several anticancer medications stop the growth of cancer cells by triggering apoptosis, necrosis, cell cycle arrest, or cell death. Others may entail immunomodulatory action, which turns on the body's own immune system to attack these cells. As they are more likely to prevent a wider spectrum of malignancies under a wide range of conditions, drugs that inhibit numerous procancer processes are of greater interest. Andrographolide has a good case for becoming a therapeutic anticancer pharmacophore because it has a twofold effect on cancer cells, acting both directly and indirectly.

4. Antimalarial Activity

There are still numerous tropical and subtropical nations where malaria is a common disease. It was discovered that Andrographis paniculata significantly reduced the growth of Plasmodium berghei, one of the parasites that spreads malaria. The reactivation of the essential antioxidant enzyme superoxide dismutase is thought to be the cause of andrographis' protective effects. Extracts from Andrographis paniculata efficiently kill filarials in dogs that block lymph channels and cause elephantiasis. Recent studies also noted that Andrographis paniculata has antimalarial properties that are effective against Plasmodium falciparum.

5. Cardiovascular Activity

In a rabbit model of atherosclerosis, andrographis increased nitric oxide, cyclic guanosine monophosphate, and the activity of superoxide dimutase while lowering lipid peroxide and endothelin levels. These findings pointed to the antioxidant capacity of Andrographis paniculata to preserve endothelial function, resulting in the preservation of the nitric oxide/endothelin ratio. In a different study, Andrographis paniculata was found to increase blood clotting time. As a result, pre- and post-treatment with Andrographis paniculata extract before angioplasty and after surgery significantly reduced blood vessel constriction, which decreased the risk of restenosis (the subsequent closing of blood vessels) after angioplasty procedures. The plant Andrographis paniculata has also been discovered to lessen the arterial narrowing brought on by damage to the blood vessel's inner lining and high dietary cholesterol.

6. Antivenom Activity

Mice that had been experimentally injected with rattlesnake venom showed a powerful neutralizing effect after receiving plant extracts of Andrographis paniculata and, in particular, purified fractions. In vitro testing showed that the isolated fractions were more successful at reducing rattlesnake venom toxicity than in vivo testing.

Conclusion

From the entire review, it is clear that Andrographis paniculata is a significant medicinal herb. This plant has numerous chemical components that are active and have defined pharmacological effects. The results of the studies make it clear that Andrographis paniculata has anti-inflammatory, anti-diabetic, anti-angiogenesis, anti-malarial, anti-venom, and antibacterial activities. Therefore, Kalmegh / Andrographis paniculata herb has medicinal benefits in conventional medicine.